Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Income Taxes

Income Taxes
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2018
Income Taxes [Abstract]  
Income Taxes


On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Tax Act”). The Tax Act made broad and complex changes to existing U.S. tax laws that impact the Company.  Most notably, the Tax Act reduced the U.S. federal corporate tax rate from 35 percent to 21 percent effective January 1, 2018. The provisions of the Tax Act and related guidance provided by Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118 allow for adjustments throughout 2018 to account for the impacts of the 2017 tax law changes. As of September 31, 2018, no additional adjustments related to the impacts of the 2017 tax law changes have been made; however, final adjustments may be necessary in the fourth quarter due to the significant complexity of the Tax Act and anticipated additional regulatory guidance or technical corrections that may be forthcoming as well as actions the Company may take as a result of tax reform.

In several states in which the Company operates, the states’ position is to conform to Federal tax legislation.  However, in practice no formal declaration is made by the states upon tax legislation changes. It is unclear at this time whether states have conformed to the Tax Act or adopted their own laws to address the federal changes. On a provisional basis, the Company released federal valuation allowance of $4,512 during the year ended December 31, 2017.  If the Company had released the state valuation allowance, it would have resulted in an incremental tax benefit of approximately $400.  The Company is also continuing to gather additional information and expects to complete its accounting within one year of enactment.

The Company takes into consideration the various changes of the Tax Act when calculating the estimated annual effective tax rate.

The difference between the Company’s estimated effective tax rate and the U.S. federal statutory tax rate of 21 percent for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, was primarily attributed to a discrete benefit associated with a tax windfall deduction from the vesting of restricted stock units and exercise of stock options and the release of an additional portion of the Company’s valuation allowance based on the Company’s forecasted pre-tax earnings for the year.

As of December 31, 2017, the Company’s gross deferred tax asset was $50,732.  The Company had recorded a valuation allowance of $45,811, resulting in a net deferred tax asset of $4,921, before deferred tax liabilities of $8,587.  The Company has provided a valuation allowance against a portion of the deferred tax assets as of December 31, 2017, because the ultimate realization of those assets did not meet the more likely than not criteria.  The majority of the Company’s deferred tax assets consist of net operating loss carryforwards for federal tax purposes.  If a change in control were to occur, these could be limited under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (“Code”), as amended.

In assessing the realizability of deferred income tax assets, management considers whether it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.  The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which those temporary differences become deductible and net operating loss and credit carryforwards expire.  The estimates and judgments associated with the Company’s valuation allowance on deferred tax assets are considered critical due to the amount of deferred tax assets recorded by the Company on its consolidated balance sheet and the judgment required in determining the Company’s future taxable income.  The need for a valuation allowance is reassessed at each interim reporting period.

As of December 31, 2017, the Company had net operating loss, research and experimentation credit and alternative minimum tax credit carryforwards for U.S. federal income tax purposes of $156,598, $3,452 and $0, respectively.  The Company believes its U.S. federal net operating loss (“NOL”) will substantially offset its future U.S. federal income taxes.  The majority of the Company’s pre-tax income is currently earned and expected to be earned in the U.S., or taxed in the U.S. as Subpart F income and will be offset with the NOL.

NOLs available to offset taxable income, subject to compliance with Section 382 of the Code, begin to expire based upon the following schedule:




Net Operating Loss Carryforward Expiration Dates

December 31, 2017




Expiration Dates December 31,


Net Operating Loss Amount

















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