Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Income Taxes

Income Taxes
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2018
Income Taxes [Abstract]  
Income Taxes


On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted the Tax Act. The Tax Act made broad and complex changes to existing U.S. tax laws that impact the Company.  Most notably, the Tax Act reduced the U.S. federal corporate tax rate from 35 percent to 21 percent effective January 1, 2018. The Tax Act also provides for a one-time transition tax on certain unrepatriated earnings of foreign subsidiaries (“Repatriation Tax”) and the acceleration of depreciation for certain assets placed in service after September 27, 2017. The Tax Act also establishes prospective changes beginning in 2018 including the move to a modified territorial system, the repeal of the domestic production activity deduction, limitations on the deductibility of certain executive compensation, and other new international tax provisions.  For tax years beginning after December 31, 2017, net operating losses generated will have an indefinite carry forward period but will only be able to offset 80% of taxable income each year.  Lastly, as a result of the Tax Act, the corporate alternative minimum tax ("AMT") was repealed. Taxpayers with AMT credit carryovers in excess of their regular tax liability may have the credits refunded over multiple years from 2018 to 2022. However, AMT transactions, including refunds, are subject to sequestration by the Office of Management and Budget.

The Company’s foreign operations that are considered to be permanently reinvested have a statutory tax rate of 25%.

The Company recognized the income tax effects of the Tax Act in its 2017 financial statements in accordance with SAB 118, which provides guidance for the application of ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes, in the reporting period in which the Tax Act was signed into law.  SAB 118 provides a measurement period that should not extend beyond one year from the Tax Act enactment date for companies to complete the accounting under ASC Topic 740. In accordance with SAB 118, a company must reflect the income tax effects of those aspects of the Tax Act for which the accounting under ASC Topic 740 is complete. To the extent a company’s accounting for certain income tax effects of the Tax Act is incomplete but it is able to determine a reasonable estimate, it must record a provisional estimate in the financial statements.

The first provisional matter recorded in 2017 relates to the Repatriation Tax and a dividend paid by the Company’s wholly owned subsidiary, Ember Scandinavia AB (“Ember”), to Clarus. Under the Repatriation Tax, all activity should be added back to the accumulated earnings and profits of specified foreign corporations (“SFC”) in order to calculate the Repatriation Tax. However, the dividend from Ember created a de facto liquidation. The guidance is unclear as to whether a liquidating dividend should be added back to accumulating earnings and profits, or if, due to the de facto liquidation, the company did not exist as of the date of measurement. The Company did not add the dividend back to the Repatriation Tax calculation, and had it done so, it would have resulted in a tax benefit of approximately $2,500 due to offsetting accumulated earnings and profits deficits of other SFCs. With additional guidance from the Internal Revenue Service, this position could change and impact the overall tax provision.  As of June 30, 2018, no guidance has been issued by the Internal Revenue Service.

The second provisional matter recorded in 2017 relates to the measurement of valuation allowance on net deferred tax assets that create future indefinite net operating losses, which can be realized through indefinite deferred tax liabilities and thus be considered as a source of future taxable income. In several states in which the Company operates, the states’ position is to conform to Federal tax legislation, however in practice no formal declaration is made by the states upon tax legislation changes. It is unclear at this time whether states have conformed to the Tax Act or adopted their own laws to address the federal changes. On a provisional basis, the Company released federal valuation allowance of $4,512. If the Company had released the state valuation allowance, it would have resulted in an incremental tax benefit of approximately $400.

The Company took into consideration the various changes of the Tax Act when calculating the annual effective tax rate.

The tax (benefit) expense includes a discrete benefit of $24 and discrete charge of $102 for the three months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively, and a discrete benefit of $52 and discrete charge of $235 for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively, associated with a disproportionate tax effect released from AOCI.

As of December 31, 2017, the Company’s gross deferred tax asset was $50,732.  The Company had recorded a valuation allowance of $45,811, resulting in a net deferred tax asset of $4,921, before deferred tax liabilities of $8,587.  The Company has provided a valuation allowance against a portion of the deferred tax assets as of December 31, 2017, because the ultimate realization of those assets did not meet the more likely than not criteria.  The majority of the Company’s deferred tax assets consist of net operating loss carryforwards for federal tax purposes.  If a change in control were to occur, these could be limited under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (“Code”), as amended.

In assessing the realizability of deferred income tax assets, management considers whether it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.  The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which those temporary differences become deductible and net operating loss and credit carryforwards expire.  The estimates and judgments associated with the Company’s valuation allowance on deferred tax assets are considered critical due to the amount of deferred tax assets recorded by the Company on its consolidated balance sheet and the judgment required in determining the Company’s future taxable income.  The need for a valuation allowance is reassessed at each interim reporting period.

As of December 31, 2017, the Company had net operating loss, research and experimentation credit and alternative minimum tax credit carryforwards for U.S. federal income tax purposes of $156,598, $3,452 and $0, respectively.  The Company believes its U.S. federal net operating loss (“NOL”) will substantially offset its future U.S. federal income taxes.  The majority of the Company’s pre-tax income is currently earned and expected to be earned in the U.S., or taxed in the U.S. as Subpart F income and will be offset with the NOL.

NOLs available to offset taxable income, subject to compliance with Section 382 of the Code, begin to expire based upon the following schedule:




Net Operating Loss Carryforward Expiration Dates

December 31, 2017




Expiration Dates December 31,


Net Operating Loss Amount

















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